Potential of AI in E-Governance


Rootcode AI

May 19 2023

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I. What is e-governance?

The term "e-governance" describes the use of electronic technology, including the internet, mobile phones, and other digital devices, to enhance and improve the way that people receive government services. e-governance has grown in importance in the contemporary world as a result of the rapid growth of technology since it gives people a more effective, open, and accessible means to communicate with their governments. e-governance may assist governments in providing services more efficiently, decreasing corruption, and boosting public participation by using digital platforms.

This is the very first part of our two-part blog series. In this article, Let's dive into the many forms of e-governance, its benefits and drawbacks, and examples of how different countries approach e-governance. Building upon this foundation, the second part of our series will explore how exactly various industries like healthcare, law enforcement, to Agriculture benefit from e-governance.

II. Types of e-Governance.

Various forms of e-governance exist, each possessing unique characteristics and advantages. There are four prevalent forms of e-governance. The various forms of e-governance are instrumental in enhancing citizen services and optimizing government operations. Digital platforms can be utilized by governments to improve transparency, foster citizen engagement, and enhance the overall quality of governance.

G2C (Government-to-Citizen)

The G2C (Government-to-Citizen) e-governance model aims to enhance the provision of government services to the general public. The comprehensive range of initiatives comprises online portals that facilitate access to public information, application for government documents, and payment of taxes. This model has been crafted to enhance the accessibility, efficiency, and user-friendliness of government services. The implementation of G2C e-governance initiatives can effectively mitigate corruption, enhance transparency, and foster citizen engagement in governance by offering a digital platform for the delivery of government services.

Some examples of G2C e-governance initiatives are India's "Digital India" campaign, which endeavors to furnish digital infrastructure and services to all citizens, and the United Kingdom's "GOV.UK" platform, which creates a single point of access for all government services and information.

G2E (Government-to-Employee)

The G2E (Government-to-Employee) e-governance model is aimed at enhancing the efficiency of internal processes within government agencies. Governments have implemented various initiatives, including employee self-service portals, online training and development programs, and performance management systems. The G2E e-governance model has been developed with the aim of optimizing the performance and output of public sector personnel, while elevating their professional contentment

The G2E e-governance initiatives encompass a range of programs, such as the USA Staffing system by the United States Office of Personnel Management (OPM), which offers an automated platform for managing the hiring process and workforce planning for federal agencies. Additionally, the "Civil Service Learning" platform by the United Kingdom provides government employees with online training and development opportunities.

Government-to-Business (G2B)

The Government-to-Business (G2B) e-governance model aims to enhance the communication and collaboration between government entities and commercial enterprises. The aforementioned initiatives include online business registration, licensing and permitting systems, and procurement portals. The G2B e-governance model has been developed with the aim of alleviating the administrative load on commercial entities, enhancing the convenience of conducting business, and fostering economic expansion.

An example of G2B e-governance initiative is Singapore's "LicenceOne" portal, which offers a comprehensive platform for businesses to apply for and manage licenses and permits from various government agencies, and the United States' "SAM.gov" portal, which provides a centralized system for businesses to register and conduct business with the federal government.

G2G (Government-to-Government)

The G2G (Government-to-Government) approach to e-governance is centered on enhancing the synchronization and partnership among diverse tiers and departments of the government. The aforementioned endeavors encompass inter-agency data-sharing platforms, and policy coordination mechanisms. The G2G e-governance model has been developed with the aim of fostering better collaboration and synergy among various government bodies, streamlining administrative processes, and ensuring greater uniformity and coherence in policy implementation.

G2G e-governance initiatives include a range of programs and platforms designed to facilitate collaboration and information sharing among government entities. Notable examples include the European Union's "Joinup" platform, which enables member states to share and reuse interoperability solutions and e-government best practices, and the United States' "FedRAMP" program, which provides a standardized framework for assessing and authorizing cloud computing products and services for government use.

III. Why should governments embrace e-governance?

The utilization of e-governance presents numerous benefits in comparison to conventional methods of governance. Outlined below are several significant advantages:

Increased transparency

E-governance increases transparency by providing citizens with convenient access to government services and information. By utilizing digital government services, individuals can obtain details regarding government initiatives, and review financial records of government expenditures. This level of transparency fosters a sense of confidence in the government and reduces the likelihood of corruption.

Better access to services

The implementation of e-governance has facilitated citizens' access to government services at their convenience, regardless of their location and time. By embracing e-governance, the requirement for citizens to travel to government offices is eliminated, reducing both the cost and time associated with accessing government services. This also helps governments to provide services productively to their citizens at a lower cost.

Time and cost savings

E-governance has proven to be effective for governments in achieving time and cost savings. This is achieved through the reduction of paperwork, simplification of administrative processes, and elimination of the need for physical infrastructure. Reducing paperwork also helps governments minimize their carbon footprint as well.

Improved citizen engagement

E-governance offers citizens a valuable platform to engage with their government and express their viewpoints, thereby enhancing citizen engagement. Enhanced citizen engagement and participation can be achieved through the provision of channels for feedback, complaint registration, and involvement in policy-making processes. This approach can lead to improved citizen participation and engagement.

IV. Drawbacks of e-governance

Although e-governance presents numerous benefits, it also poses various obstacles that require attention. Outlined below are several significant challenges:

Digital Divide

To effectively implement e-governance, citizens must possess access to dependable internet connectivity and digital devices. A considerable number of individuals, especially those residing in distant and secluded regions, might lack the means to access these services. The emergence of this digital divide poses the risk of potentially increasing the friction in accessing government services for citizens who do not have access to enough digital resources like the internet and smartphones.

Security and Privacy Concerns

The e-governance services can potentially gather a significant volume of sensitive personal data from the public, raising concerns about security and privacy. It is imperative that this data must be securely stored and safeguarded against potential cyber threats. Governments must prioritize the security and compliance of their e-governance platforms with data protection and privacy regulations.

Technical Infrastructure

For the successful implementation of e-governance, it is important to have a sturdy technical infrastructure in place that guarantees dependable and convenient access to the platforms. Governments must allocate resources towards developing vital resources that can facilitate e-governance. This includes the provision of high-speed internet connectivity, data centres, and digital devices.

Resistance to change

Implementing e-governance required modifications to administrative procedures and workplace norms, which may be met with resistance. Resistance to change among government officials can pose challenges during the implementation of e-governance.

To effectively tackle these challenges, a collaborative approach is necessary among governmental bodies, civil society organizations, and private enterprises. Governments can effectively ensure that e-governance delivers its promised benefits by investing in essential infrastructure, addressing security and privacy concerns, and ensuring universal accessibility of e-governance platforms to all citizens.

Use cases of good e-governance

Numerous instances of good e-governance initiatives can be found across the globe. Below are some noteworthy examples:

1. e-Estonia

Estonia has established itself as a trailblazer in the realm of e-government and digitalization. Since the 1990s, the nation has been diligently pursuing the digitization of its public services and has achieved noteworthy advancements in this domain. Currently, Estonia boasts a highly sophisticated digital society, offering its populace a diverse array of e-services. These services include e-voting, e-tax filing, and e-residency. Since its inception in 2014, the country's e-Residency program has enabled individuals from around the globe to remotely establish and operate a business in Estonia without requiring a physical presence. Estonia has implemented blockchain technology for diverse purposes, including healthcare and digital identity. The country has also established a reliable digital identity system for its citizens. The Estonian government has made significant investments in constructing resilient digital infrastructure and has taken measures to encourage digital literacy and proficiency among its populace. Estonia's e-Government model has garnered global recognition and catalyzed for other nations to emulate its approach toward digitalizing public services. Estonia has implemented a comprehensive national AI strategy called the AI - "Kratt" strategy aimed at promoting the integration of AI technology across public and private domains. The strategic plan comprises four key pillars, namely: enhancing the implementation of artificial intelligence in government, integrating artificial intelligence in the economy, fostering skills and research and development, and improving the legal framework. The government has adopted a government-as-platform strategy to boost the adoption of AI and has committed to investing a minimum of 10M Euros towards AI implementation between 2019 and 2021. Estonia's public sector has already implemented several AI use cases. These include the utilization of machine learning algorithms to detect anomalies in data exchange, predictive analytics for traffic regulation, job matching facilitated by AI, and the application of machine learning to detect land mowing.

2. Singapore’s e-government strategy

Singapore has emerged as a prominent example of e-governance, offering people and organizations a swift, streamlined, and user-friendly means of engaging with the government via various digital services. In the year 2000, the e-Government Action Plan was initiated to direct the nation's endeavors in this domain for a span of three years. A sum of $1.5 billion was allocated toward the advancement of diverse programs. The action plan prescribed six programs to facilitate the transition of the three vital sectors, namely G2C, G2B, and G2E, towards the e-government vision. Singapore has made noteworthy advancements in the G2C sector by implementing "eCitizen," a comprehensive web portal that serves as a centralized access point for many government information and services. The platform offers citizens a diverse array of online public services, with 77% of public services deemed appropriate for electronic delivery being made available online as of June 2002. The platform provides interactive transaction features that allow citizens to apply for a passport conveniently, settle parking fines, renew driving licenses, enroll their children in primary school, or submit their annual income tax, among other services.

3. Digital India Programme

The Digital India program was initiated by India's Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) to convert the nation into a knowledge-based economy and digitally empower the community. The program aims to mitigate the digital divide and guarantee universal digital access, inclusion, and empowerment for all members of society. The implementation of Digital India has effectively bridged the gap between the government and its citizens, facilitating the transparent and corruption-free delivery of services to beneficiaries. The program encompasses a range of projects from central ministries/departments and states/UTs, including but not limited to the Common Services Centers, UMANG, e-District Mission Mode Project, DigiLocker, Unified Payment Interface, and CO-WIN. Furthermore, the government has implemented farmer-centric programs such as the National Agriculture Market, m-Kisan, One Stop Window Farmers Portal,Soil Health Card, and the Mobile-based advisory system for agriculture and horticulture (M4AGRI). The government has implemented measures to promote data governance for the purpose of socio-economic advancement within the nation. One such initiative is the Open Government Data platform.

The eCitizen platform plays a pivotal role in Singapore's e-government strategy by offering enhanced convenience, transparency, and reduced administrative expenses to both citizens and businesses. This platform also assists the government in providing high-quality services that are highly valued by the public.


The adoption of e-governance and investment in digital infrastructure is imperative for governments globally to enhance citizen services. Our company believes that technology can be a pivotal factor in the transformation of government services, rendering them more accessible and efficient for citizens. We invite governments worldwide to collaborate with us in adopting cutting-edge technology and revolutionizing their e-governance frameworks to enhance the welfare of their people

To sum up, e-governance offers many advantages, including heightened efficacy, transparency, and availability of governmental amenities. In addition, it facilitates the mitigation of corrupt practices and streamlines operational efficiency, resulting in reduced expenses and time investments for both public constituents and governmental entities. Despite its potential benefits, e-governance presents several challenges that must be addressed. These include safeguarding the security and privacy of citizen data, ensuring equitable access to digital services, and providing sufficient training and support to citizens. Looking ahead, it is our firm belief that e-governance will remain an essential component in the process of modernizing government operations and facilitating the provision of public services. As per a report by MRFR, it is anticipated that the worldwide e-governance market will experience a compound annual growth rate of 12% by 2026. Numerous governments worldwide are presently engaged in active pursuit of digital transformation initiatives aimed at enhancing the convenience and accessibility of services offered to citizens.

Stay tuned for our second part of our blog series, where we will cover how AI is shaping e-governance, what opportunities are in line, the potential concerns that revolve around e-governance, and how countries are currently adopting intelligent strategies in their government procedures. Get ready to discover the potential and practical applications of AI in shaping the future of e-governance.

At Rootcode AI, our expertise in building great tech extends not only to businesses but also to governments, enabling them to enhance their citizen services through e-governance. Talk to us, to collaborate on a project, together!